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Characteristics and classification of graphene, the mother of carbon materials

wallpapers News 2021-05-14
Graphene properties
Graphene was discovered in 2004 by Kostya Novoshev and Andre Geim of the University of Manchester using a simple method called mechanical microstress technique. It was in this simple way that graphene, a simple substance, overturned a scientific misconception that any two-dimensional crystal could not be stable at a finite temperature. Graphene is a two-dimensional crystal that not only exists at room temperature, but is very stable in normal environments.
Unlike all other known materials, graphene is highly stable and conducts electricity well even when cut into components 1 nanometer wide. In addition, graphene single-electron transistors can operate at room temperature. And as a conductor of heat, graphene conducts heat better than any other material currently available. What's even more amazing is that graphene is extremely flexible. Graphene with only one layer of carbon atom thick is called "miracle material".
Graphene is the hardest and thinnest material known, only one carbon atom thick. Graphene is almost completely transparent, absorbs only 2.3 percent of light, and is only 0.34 nanometers thick. One hundred thousand layers of graphene add up to a thickness roughly equal to the diameter of a human hair, which is invisible to the naked eye.
Graphite structure
Graphene is a kind of hexagonal two-dimensional carbon nanomaterial composed of carbon atoms with sp2 hybrid orbitals. This stable two-dimensional honeycomb lattice structure endows graphene with excellent properties such as mechanics, optics, electricity and microscopic quantum properties, and is known as the "king of materials".
Graphene is a two-dimensional crystal made of carbon atoms that is stripped from graphite and is only one atom thick. Graphene has a perfect two-dimensional crystal structure. Its lattice is a hexagon surrounded by six carbon atoms. The carbon atoms are connected by S bonds, which are sp2 hybridized.
Graphene has a unique electronic energy band structure, based on independent carbon atoms, the potential generated by surrounding carbon atoms as perturbation, can be used to calculate the energy level distribution of graphene matrix method, the effective mass of electrons in graphene is zero, showing the unique electrical properties of graphene.
Graphene is the strongest substance known to man. It is stronger than diamond, 100 times stronger than the best steel in the world, and can withstand a maximum pressure of about 2.9 micronewtons per 100 nanometres.
Graphene is the material with the lowest electrical resistivity in the world. In graphene, electrons are able to migrate extremely efficiently, at a rate of only three hundredths of the speed of light, far higher than in traditional semiconductors and conductors such as silicon and copper. Graphene has very low electrical resistivity, and electrons can move around in it very efficiently, which makes it very conductive.


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