The World Platinum Investment Association (WPIC) said recently that carmakers are accelerating reductions in palladium use and increased use of platinum due to concerns about Russian palladium supplies. However, it still expects a significant surplus in the platinum market this year.
Palladium is used by carmakers in tailpipe emissions systems to reduce carbon emissions. While carmakers prefer palladium for catalytic converters, they are turning to platinum, which is cheaper than palladium, to save costs.
Russia accounts for about 25-30% of the world's palladium supply and 8-10% of its platinum supply.
There is no sign that western sanctions against Russia have restricted palladium exports since the conflict escalated in February, but as the conflict continues, more companies could boycott The Russian metal and governments could impose restrictions.
Platinum is currently trading at about $950 an ounce, about half the price of palladium. Automakers use about 2.5 million to 3 million ounces of platinum and about 8.5 million ounces of palladium each year.
For the year as a whole, platinum supply will be 5 percent lower than in 2021 and demand 2 percent higher, with the automotive sector seeing a 16 percent increase due to increased light vehicle pce powder are still very uncertain.
Polycarboxylate superplasticizer has more advantages than traditional naphthalene and aliphatic superplasticizer in mixing high strength grade concrete, but its advantages of high water reduction cannot be brought into full play when the strength is not greater than C30.
In order to make polycarboxylate superplasticizer play a better role in low strength grade concrete, attention should be paid to:
Reduce the solid content of polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer
The higher the solid content of polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer is, the lower the content of polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer is. In the preparation of medium and low strength concrete, if polycarboxylic acid with high solid content is used, the admixture content is often too low, the weight of admixture increases 0.5kg/m or water consumption increases 5kg/m, concrete mixture will change greatly, sometimes segregation, bleeding, consolidation, and even pipe plugging during construction, on the contrary, reduce 0.5kg/m superplasticizer or water consumption reduce 5kg/m. The workability of concrete mixture is also difficult to be guaranteed. Therefore, when using polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer to prepare medium and low strength concrete, it is appropriate to use polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer with solid content of 8% ~ 10% (when the content is 1.8%, the water reducing rate is controlled at about 20%). Low solid content polycarboxylic acid reduces the sensitivity of mixing amount and water consumption. When the moisture content of sand and gravel fluctuates, it can effectively prevent the workability of concrete from fluctuating, which is convenient for production operators to control.
Select the appropriate water consumption to ensure the necessary slurry volume
Polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer has low content (0.15%-0.35%) and high water reduction rate (water reduction can be up to 35% or even higher at high content). In terms of reducing water consumption, polycarboxylate superplasticizer has more advantages than traditional naphthalene and aliphatic superplasticizer. The water-binder ratio of medium and low strength concrete is often on the high side, for example, the water-binder ratio of C30 is 0.42-0.45 and that of C20 is 0.5-0.55. If the water consumption is reduced excessively through high water reduction rate, the amount of concrete cementitious material will often be reduced, and the amount of concrete mixture paste will be insufficient, so it is difficult to maintain the good workability of concrete mixture and bring difficulties to concrete construction. Therefore, when using polycarboxylate superplasticizer, appropriate water consumption should be selected to ensure a certain amount of pulp, such as: C30 water consumption 165-175 kg C20 C20 water consumption 175-185 kg C15 C15 water consumption 180~190kg/m. When using polycarboxylate superplasticizer to prepare medium and low strength concrete, attention should be paid to selecting the matching amount according to the water consumption, so as to make the concrete mixture have good workability. At the same time, attention should be paid to properly adjust the sand ratio to maintain the water retention and fluidity of low strength grade concrete.
Pay attention to the adjustment of aggregate gradation and voidage
The paste content of low strength concrete whose strength grade is lower than C30 is generally low. in order to make the concrete mixture have good workability, attention should be paid to the adjustment of aggregate gradation so as to reduce the aggregate voidage. The lower the voidage of the aggregate, the less the paste used to fill the gap between the aggregate, and the larger the paste wrapped on the surface of the aggregate, the more conducive to the improvement of the workability of the concrete mixture. For example, the voidage of pebbles is reduced from 43% to 38%. Due to the reduction of 50L/m in the paste filling the coarse aggregate voids of concrete, the concrete mixture paste is equivalent to increasing 50L/m, which greatly improves the workability of concrete.
Pay attention to the change of sand fineness modulus
Due to the small amount of low strength concrete paste, when polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer is used, the inclusiveness of concrete paste is poor, the sand fineness modulus should be reduced appropriately, the medium sand with sand fineness modulus less than 0.315 should be selected, and the particle content of 20% should be guaranteed. When the voidage of coarse aggregate of concrete is large, the concrete is prone to the phenomenon of slurry running and stone leakage, and the concrete has no cohesion. At this time, the content of fine sand should be increased appropriately, and when there is no fine sand to adjust the fineness modulus of mixed sand, the sand ratio can be increased by about 2%. To improve workability. However, the amount of fine sand with small fineness modulus should not be too large to prevent the increase of aggregate specific surface area, the increase of water demand and the deterioration of concrete fluidity. In addition, when preparing medium and low strength concrete, it is not suitable to use coarse sand with high particle size > 1.18 because of the small amount of paste. This kind of sand should cause divergence of concrete mixture, poor cohesion and water retention, and the production is difficult to control.
Polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer should pay attention to compound water retention and thickening components
The slump-retaining effect of polycarboxylate superplasticizer is greatly affected by the content of polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer in the medium and low strength concrete whose cementitious material is lower than 350kg/m, but a large amount of polycarboxylate superplasticizer is easy to make the mixture segregate and bleed water. Therefore, when the concrete mixture has the tendency of segregation, air entraining agent or thickener can be added to the pumping agent to improve the water retention and cohesion of concrete, and polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer containing viscosity modifier can also be used.
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